Time-based Chern number in periodically driven systems in the adiabatic limit


To define the topology of driven systems, recent works have proposed synthetic dimensions as a way to uncover the underlying parameter space of topological invariants. Using time as a synthetic dimension, together with a momentum dimension, gives access to a synthetic two-dimensional (2D) Chern number. It is, however, still unclear how the synthetic 2D Chern number is related to the Chern number that is defined from a parametric variable that evolves with time. Here we show that in periodically driven systems in the adiabatic limit, the synthetic 2D Chern number is a multiple of the Chern number defined from the parametric variable. The synthetic 2D Chern number can thus be engineered via how the parametric variable evolves in its own space. We justify our claims by investigating Thouless pumping in two one-dimensional (1D) tight-binding models, a three-site chain model, and a two-1D-sliding-chains model. The present findings could be extended to higher dimensions and other periodically driven configurations.

Physical Review Research
Umberto De Giovannini
Umberto De Giovannini
Assistant Professor