Nonequilibrium Quantum Probing through Linear Response


The formalism of linear response theory can be extended to encompass physical situations where an open quantum system evolves towards a non-equilibrium steady-state. Here, we use the framework put forward by Konopik and Lutz [Phys. Rev. Research textbf1, 033156 (2019)] to go beyond unitary perturbations of the dynamics. Considering an open system comprised of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we study the system’s response to unitary perturbations, affecting the Hamiltonian dynamics, as well as non-unitary perturbations, affecting the properties of the environment, e.g., its temperature and squeezing. We show that linear response, combined with a quantum probing approach, can effectively provide valuable quantitative information about the perturbation and characteristics of the environment, even in cases of non-unitary dynamics.

Physical Review Research
Mauro Paternostro
Mauro Paternostro
Full Professor